Vehicle-to-everything in short V2X is a communication technology used for vehicles to communicate with everything around them. Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) is one component that allows vehicles to communicate with one another. Another component of this technology is vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) which allows vehicles to communicate information with external objects or systems such as traffic lights, buildings, bikes and even pedestrians.
What is V2X?
Vehicle-to-everything in short V2X is a communication technology used for vehicles to communicate with everything around them. Vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) is one component which allows vehicles to communicate with one another. Another component of this technology is vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) which allows vehicles to communicate information with external objects or systems such as traffic lights, buildings, bikes and even pedestrians.
Applications of V2X
Though the main purpose of V2X is to improve safety and efficiency and prevent collisions, the technology can also help to serve other purposes like integrating automatic payments for tolls, parking, and help overall integration with connected devices seamless. There is already a wide range of applications in use or in development.
1) Cars and commercial truck applications already have features such as automatic braking, adaptive cruise control, forward collision warning and lane change warning. Combining these features with V2X makes invisible visible and can warn drivers of potential road hazards, helping reduce traffic injuries and fatalities
2) In other industry segments such as mining, V2X technology can be used to communicate between vehicles without relying on IT infrastructure. This technology can enable operators to quickly understand the location of other mining machinery, such as dump trucks or other hydraulic machinery operating at mine sites. V2X system can help reduce collisions in situations with poor visibility such as intersections in hilly terrain or at night.
3) Agricultural vehicles have, perhaps, the most widely developed portfolio of V2X applications, including vehicle synchronization systems that share data on guidance lines, crop yield and soil moisture. These systems coordinate tractors and combine operations to control grain flow and maximize loads. Also, GPS mapping systems enable driverless tractor systems monitored remotely or by a lead vehicle.
V2X for Autonomy
Safety remains the main concern as many automotive companies are trying to bring autonomous cars. The advanced safety systems (camera, Radar and Lidar) in these vehicles can see what’s around them and the use of V2X communication will allow the autonomous cars to see even further than what’s nearby – around cars, around other vehicles and even up to a mile away. Increased connectivity with other objects/systems on the road including cyclists, pedestrians, emergency vehicles and infrastructure including traffic lights, digital road signs and pedestrians, even if they are not directly within the direct line of sight should make the autonomous cars safer to operate on-road along with traditional cars.
DSRC vs C-V2X
There are two communication standards to support V2X: dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) based on 802.11 p and cellular V2X. DSRC allows the automatic transmission of real-time short, dedicated safety-critical messages between objects in the absence of a cellular network. Cellular based V2X requires the assistance of a network. For safety-critical applications that must be able to operate in the absence of a network, DSRC is the ideal solution. While industry analysts predict that automotive OEMs will gravitate towards 5G for V2V for its lower latency and higher range, DSRC still appeals to automakers like Ford, GM and Toyota because they will not have to pay for a subscription fee. Either way, deciding on 5G or DSRC will assure the industry and finally accelerate the implementation of V2V.
V2X is a great concept and several technological advancements are in the works. But the full implementation is far more complicated than most people realize. It involves many aspects including technology, wireless spectrum, many governmental regulatory bodies, and cooperation of automakers and adaptation of the technology. Sensors, data storage, and analytics will become increasingly cost-effective, ensuring the widespread prevalence and network effects of V2V systems. Another factor is the infrastructure including traffic lights, freeway structure etc. Vehicle-to infrastructure, or the increased connectivity between vehicles as well as between vehicles and components of roadway infrastructure, is the likely next step after V2V. The full implementation of V2X – a combination of V2V and V2I may be many years away.
-Article contributed by Shyam Chunduri